[an error occurred while processing this directive]
Cambridge University EPIC-Norfolk
EPIC-Norfolk: nutritional methods
Data collection
Data processing



S. A. Bingham, J. H. Cummings. (1985) Urine nitrogen as an independent validatory measure of dietary intake: a study of nitrogen balance in individuals consuming their normal diet. Am J Clin Nutr Dec 42 (6):1276-1289.

S. A. Bingham, R. Williams, T. J. Cole, C. P. Price, J. H. Cummings. (1988) Reference values for analytes of 24-h urine collections known to be complete. Ann Clin Biochem Nov 25 ( Pt 6) ():610-619.

S. A. Bingham. (1994) The use of 24-h urine samples and energy expenditure to validate dietary assessments. Am J Clin Nutr Jan 59 (1 Suppl):227S-231S.

S. A. Bingham, C. Gill, A. Welch, K. Day, A. Cassidy, K. T. Khaw, M. J. Sneyd, T. J. Key, L. Roe, N. E. Day. (1994) Comparison of dietary assessment methods in nutritional epidemiology: weighed records v. 24 h recalls, food-frequency questionnaires and estimated-diet records. Br J Nutr Oct 72 (4):619-643.

S. A. Bingham, A. Cassidy, T. J. Cole, A. Welch, S. A. Runswick, A. E. Black, D. Thurnham, C. Bates, K. T. Khaw, T. J. Key. (1995) Validation of weighed records and other methods of dietary assessment using the 24 h urine nitrogen technique and other biological markers. Br J Nutr Apr 73 (4):531-550.

S. A. Bingham, C. Gill, A. Welch, A. Cassidy, S. A. Runswick, S. Oakes, R. Lubin, D. I. Thurnham, T. J. Key, L. Roe, K. T. Khaw, N. E. Day. (1997) Validation of dietary assessment methods in the UK arm of EPIC using weighed records, and 24-hour urinary nitrogen and potassium and serum vitamin C and carotenoids as biomarkers. Int J Epidemiol 26 Suppl 1 ():S137-S151.


S. A. Bingham, N. E. Day. (1997) Using biochemical markers to assess the validity of prospective dietary assessment methods and the effect of energy adjustment. Am J Clin Nutr Apr 65 (4 Suppl):1130S-1137S.


A. E. Black, A. A. Welch, S. A. Bingham. (2000) Validation of dietary intakes measured by diet history against 24 h urinary nitrogen excretion and energy expenditure measured by the doubly-labelled water method in middle-aged women. Br J Nutr Apr 83 (4):341-354.


N. Day, N. McKeown, M. Wong, A. Welch, S. Bingham. (2001) Epidemiological assessment of diet: a comparison of a 7-day diary with a food frequency questionnaire using urinary markers of nitrogen, potassium and sodium. Int J Epidemiol Apr 30 (2):309-317.


N. M. McKeown, N. E. Day, A. A. Welch, S. A. Runswick, R. N. Luben, A. A. Mulligan, A. McTaggart, S. A. Bingham. (2001) Use of biological markers to validate self-reported dietary intake in a random sample of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer United Kingdom Norfolk cohort. Am J Clin Nutr Aug 74 (2):188-196.

Next section: calibration>>

Home | About | Third Health Check | International | People & Galleries | Participant Advisory PanelJobs | Contact Us | FAQ |

Findings & ResultsPublications | In the News | Collaborators | Nutritional Methods | Public Events | Sponsors | Intranet | Local |