EPIC-Norfolk Food Frequency Questionnaire: References/Useful readings



The validation methods and format of the EPIC questionnaires have been published in the references listed below:


Bingham SA, Gill C, Welch A, Day K, Cassidy A, Khaw K T, Sneyd MJ, Key TJA, Roe L and Day NE. (1994) Comparison of dietary assessment methods in nutritional epidemiology: weighed records v. 24h recalls, food frequency questionnaires and estimated diet records. B J Nut 72 (619-642).


Bingham S, Cassidy A, Cole T, Welch A, Runswick S, Black AE, Thurnham D, Bates C, Khaw KT and Day, NE (1995). Validation of weighed records and other methods of dietary assessment using the 24 h urine nitrogen technique and other biological markers. B J Nut 73 (531-550).


McKeown, N.M, Welch, A.M., Runswick, S.A., Luben, R., Mulligan, A.,McTaggart, A., Day, N.E., Bingham, S.A (2001) The use of biological markers to validate self reported dietary intake in a random sample of the European Prospective Investigation into cancer (EPIC) UK Norfolk Cohort American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 74 (188-96).


NE Day, N McKeown, MY Wong, A Welch, and S Bingham Epidemiological assessment of diet: a comparison of a 7-day diary with a food frequency questionnaire using urinary markers of nitrogen, potassium and sodium Int.J. Epidemiol. 2001 30: 309-317.


Welch AA, McTaggart A, Mulligan AA, Luben R, Walker N, Khaw KT, Day NE, Bingham SA DINER (Data Into Nutrients for Epidemiological Research) – a new data-entry program for nutritional analysis in the EPIC-Norfolk cohort and the 7-day diary method. Public Health Nutr. 2001 Dec;4(6):1253-65.


Welch AA, Luben R, Khaw KT, Bingham SA. The CAFE computer program for nutritional analysis of the EPIC-Norfolk food frequency questionnaire and identification of extreme nutrient values. J Hum Nutr Diet. 2005 Apr;18(2):99-116.


Mulligan AA, Luben RN, Bhaniani A, Parry-Smith DJ, O'Connor L, Khawaja AP, Forouhi NG, Khaw KT. A new tool for converting food frequency questionnaire data into nutrient and food group values: FETA research methods and availability. BMJ Open. 2014 Mar 27;4(3):e004503. doi: 10.1136/bmjopen-2013-004503.


Sources of nutrient data:

Holland B, Unwin ID, Buss DH (1988). Cereals and cereal products. Third supplement to McCance and Widdowson’s The Composition of Foods, 4th ed. Cambridge: Royal Society of Chemistry.


Holland B, Unwin ID, Buss DH (1989). Milk products and eggs. Fourth supplement to McCance and Widdowson’s The Composition of Foods, 4th ed. Cambridge: Royal Society of Chemistry.


Holland B, Welch AA, Unwin ID, Buss DH, Paul AA, Southgate DAT (1991). McCance and Widdowson’s The Composition of Foods, 5th ed. Cambridge: Royal Society of Chemistry.

Holland B, Unwin ID, Buss DH (1991). Vegetables, herbs and spices. Fifth supplement to McCance and Widdowson’s The Composition of Foods, 4th ed. Cambridge: Royal Society of Chemistry.


Holland B, Unwin ID, Buss DH (1992). Fruit and nuts. First supplement to McCance and Widdowson’s The Composition of Foods, 5th ed. Cambridge: Royal Society of Chemistry.


Holland B, Welch AA, Buss DH (1992). Vegetable dishes. Second supplement to McCance and Widdowson’s The Composition of Foods, 5th ed. Cambridge: Royal Society of Chemistry.

Holland B, Brown JB, Buss DH (1993). Fish and fish products. Third supplement to McCance and Widdowson’s The Composition of Foods, 5th ed. Cambridge: Royal Society of Chemistry.


Chan W, Brown JB, Buss DH (1994). Miscellaneous foods. Fourth supplement to McCance and Widdowson’s The Composition of Foods, 5th ed. Cambridge: Royal Society of Chemistry.


Chan W, Brown J, Lee SM, Buss DH (1995). Meat, poultry and game. Fifth supplement to McCance and Widdowson’s The Composition of Foods, 5th ed. Cambridge: Royal Society of Chemistry.


Chan W, Brown J, Church SM, Buss DH (1996). Meat products and dishes. Sixth supplement to McCance and Widdowson’s The Composition of Foods, 5th ed. Cambridge: Royal Society of Chemistry.



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last updated: 22 March 2012